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Surface lipids

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Group leaders : Frédéric Domergue, Researcher CNRS & Jérôme Joubès, Professor

Fréderic Domergue obtained his PhD in biochemistry in 1997 and his HDR in 2013 at Bordeaux University. He worked as a post-doctoral research fellow at the Nobel Foundation, USA (1997-1998), Washington State University, USA (1998-2000) and Universität Hamburg, Germany (2000-2005). In 2005, he obtained a full position (CR1) at the CNRS and joined the LBM. He authored or co-authored 45 peer-reviewed scientific articles.
contact :
Phone : 00 33 5 57 12 25 74 ; E-mail : frederic.domergue@u-bordeaux.fr

Jérôme Joubès is Professor at the University of Bordeaux. He obtained his PhD in plant biology in 1999 and his HDR in 2013, both at Bordeaux University. He worked as a post-doctoral research fellow at the Department of Plant systems Biology of Ghent University in Belgium (2000-2003). In 2003, he obtained an associate professor position at the Bordeaux University and joined the LBM. Since 2016, he is director of the Research Federation "Integrative Biology and Ecology" and assistant director of the Research Department "Life Science and Health" of Bordeaux University. He is now leading the group « Integrative biochemistry of plant lipid metabolism ».

contact :
Phone : 00 33 5 57 12 25 74 ; E-mail : jerome.joubes@u-bordeaux.fr

Group members : F. Domergue (CR), J. Joubès (Pr), D. Thoraval (MC), S. Pascal (AI).

Controlling the amount of water inside a plant is essential to its survival. Lack of or excessive water causes severe stress in plants, conducive to death when the stress conditions are extreme. During evolution, plants have adapted their anatomy and physiology in order to maintain a water composition compatible with life, even in adverse environmental conditions.

For this, they have developed :

- The cuticle, which consists of cuticular wax and cutin, present in aerial parts, which controls the movement of water between cells in the epidermis and the surrounding air by way of stomata,

- The suberine, which covers the cell walls of tissues in contact with the outside environment (including roots), and makes the flow of ions and water difficult.

The cutin and suberine biopolymers are mainly composed of mono - or bi-carboxylic fatty acids containing hydroxyl and/or epoxy groups and which are inter-esterified to each other. The cuticular waxes are made up of fatty acids derived from very long chain fatty acids : alkanes, alcohols, and ketones. Information concerning their biosynthesis and their role in physiological conditions including water stress is still fragmentary.

Our aim is to understand the biosynthesis, regulation, organisation and accumulation of the various constituents of cutin, suberine and waxes and to study the regulation of genes controlling their quality and quantity under water stress conditions.

Wax crystals at the surface of Arabidopsis stems visualized by scanning electron microscopy

Key publications :
- Joubès J. and Domergue F. (2018) Biosynthesis of the plant cuticle. In : Wilkes H. (eds) Hydrocarbons, Oils and Lipids : Diversity, Origin, Chemistry and Fate. Handbook of Hydrocarbon and Lipid Microbiology. Springer, Cham.
- Domergue F. and Kosma D.K. (2017) Occurrence and biosynthesis of alkyl hydroxycinnamates in plant lipid barriers. Plants 6(3). pii : E25. doi : 10.3390/plants6030025.
- Delude C., Vishwanath S. J., Rowland O. and Domergue F. (2017) Root aliphatic suberin analysis using non-extraction or solvent-extraction methods. Bio-protocol 7(12) : e2331. DOI : 10.21769/BioProtoc.2331.
- Hegebarth D., Buschhaus C., Joubès J., Thoraval D., Bird D. and Jetter R. (2017). Arabidopsis ketoacyl-CoA synthase 16 forms C36/C38 acyls for leaf tri- chome and pavement surface wax. Plant Cell and Environment, 40(9) : 1761-1776.
- Delude C., Moussu S., Joubès J., Ingram G. and Domergue F. (2016) Plant surface lipids and epidermis development. In "Lipids in Plant and Algae Development", "Subcellular Biochemistry" vol. 86, Nakamura Y. and Li-Beisson Y. (eds), Springer International Publishing Switzerland, pp 287-313.
- Haslam T.M., Haslam R., Thoraval D., Pascal S., Delude C., Domergue F., Manas-Fernandez A., Beaudoin F., Napier J.A., Kunst L. and Joubès J. (2015). CER2-LIKE proteins have unique biochemical and physiological functions in very-long-chain fatty acid elongation. Plant Physiology, 167 : 682-692.
- Vishwanath S.J., Kosma D. K., Pulsifer I. P., Scandola S., Pascal S., Joubès J., Dittrich-Domergue F., Lessire R., Rowland O. and Domergue F. (2013). Suberin-associated fatty alcohols in Arabidopsis thaliana : distributions in roots and contributions to seed coat barrier properties. Plant Physiology, 163(3) ; 1118-1132.
- Bernard A. and Joubès J. (2013). Arabidopsis cuticular waxes : Advances in synthesis, export and regulation. Progress in Lipid Research, 52:110-129.
- Bernard A., Domergue F., Pascal S., Jetter R., Renne C., Faure J.D., Haslam R.P., Napier J.A., Lessire R. and Joubès J. (2012). Reconstitution of plant alkane biosynthesis in yeast demonstrates that Arabidopsis ECERIFERUM1 and ECERIFERUM3 are core components of a very-long-chain-alkane synthesis complex. Plant Cell, 24(7) : 3106-3118.